Posts Tagged ‘biology case study’

Muscle Case Study

Muscle Case Study

Skeletal muscles are the organs of the muscular system and are made up of skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue and blood. The human body is approximately made up of 600 skeletal muscles. The basic functions of the skeletal muscles are to provide movement of the bones, maintain posture, and produce heat.

Sometimes a muscle or a group of muscles can become injured due to overuse, the most common injury affecting baseball pitchers. Jason is a college pitcher who began to experience soreness of his right pitching arm. The twenty year old pitcher noticed a decline in duration as well as pitching abilities. The symptoms developed during the season are due to a decrease in conditioning and an increase of duration and intensity while in training season. Once Jason felt his conditioning was met, the main focus turned toward pitching alone. When the season began, the patient had already started to wear down the rotator cuff muscles by pitching entire games and using more force. With time, the depletion in performance was evident and resulted in a choice of using a different pitching method rather than resting the tired arm. Eventually, Jason was sent to see a team physician to be evaluated. The physician suspected the rotator cuff was the root of the problem. The rotator cuff consists of 4 tendons that belong to the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and the teres minor muscles. These muscles encircle and stabilize the shoulder joint and deltoid. Pitchers usually are associated with this particular kind of injury because of the overhand throwing motion, known as circumduction, and repetitive use. Through a physical examination, the results support the doctor’s diagnosis. The MRI revealed inflammation of muscles in the right shoulder and arm.

MRIs are the most commonly used over an x-ray because if a tear in the muscles or tissues were present, the MRI is able to distinguish between the soft tissues. As for x-rays, it focuses more on broken bones, disabling the detection of any soft tissue contrast. The right arms range of motion revealed that it was reduced and guarded, meaning the arm was drawn unusually close to body. The ROM test consists of internal and external rotation as well as abduction of shoulder. Muscle force test is also performed to help measure muscle strength.

There are three different scales that may be used to measure strength; however the numerical scale was used in this particular case. The numerical scale ranges from one, for “no contraction”, through five, “normal contraction strength”; to further differentiate strength, a negative or a positive may be added to the number grade.

The purpose is to focus on each individual muscle and determine the strength and ability against resistance. Jason’s strength test, of the rotator cuff muscles, received a grade of 4-, which is considered a “normal” contraction grade. As for the visual examination, the right shoulder drooped and lacked free movement, in addition to the arm being drawn closely to his body. If the injury affected the rotator cuff nerve supply it would have affected the brachial plexuses nerves that consist of the lower subscapular nerves (subscapularis), suprascapular nerve (supraspinatus/infraspinatus), and the axillary nerve (teres minor). (Quintana, 2001) Read more…


Example Case Study on Endocrine System

Case Study on Endocrine System

Just as the nervous system is a vital computer and communication system that forms the biological basis for behavior and conscious experience, the endocrine system also plays and important role in communication and regulation of bodily processes. One of the body’s master glands that helps regulate the activity of the other glands in the endocrine system is the pituitary gland. Both the endocrine system and the pituitary gland play an important role in secreting the body’s hormones. Like the components of a computer, the endocrine system and the pituitary gland each do small parts to make sure that large tasks are completed.

The system of glands that secretes hormones through the body is known as the endocrine system. The system consists of a number of glands that secrete two types of chemical messengers. Many glands in the endocrine system secrete nueropeptides into the bloodstream. Communication and coordination are provided when nueropeptides reach some glands in the endocrine system. Some of the nueropeptides reach the brain when secreted by the endocrine system, and in turn glands in the endocrine system are directly and indirectly influenced, the endocrine glands influence the brain in return.

The endocrine system also releases hormones in the bloodstream where they are carried through the body. Hormone actions are related to those of the nervous system in three ways: first, hormones are directly regulated to the brain. Second, some of the hormones are chemically identical to some of the neurotransmitters. Third, hormones aid the nervous system’s ability to control the body by activating many organs during physical stress or emotional aroused. By passing into the body of cells and influencing the way in which genetic codes in their nuclei are transmitted.

The body’s master gland, located near the bottom of the brain, whose secretions help regulate the activity of the other glands in the endocrine system, is know as the pituitary gland. Probably of the most important function of this gland is that it regulates the activity of the body’s reactions to stress and resistance to disease. The pituitary gland also aids in secreting hormones that have important effects on the body, which include: the controlling of blood pressure, thirst, and the growth of the body. Too much or too little secretion of the pituitary’s growth hormone can result in the development of a “giant” of a “dwarf.”

In closing, the endocrine system and the pituitary gland do their own small parts, likes the components of a computer do, to help regulate the body.